Helmuth had been a keen Boy Scout from an early age but in 1935 the Nazis, by now firmly in control of Germany, closed down the Scouts. Henceforth, young Germans would have only one choice of youth group, the sinister Hitler Youth. In fact, membership was compulsory, and this requirement seems to have inspired Hübener’s first doubts about the Nazi regime.
Hübener’s view of the Nazis took another downturn when members of the Hitler Youth organization, which he’d been forced to join, took part in Kristallnacht. This was a savage, Nazi-organized mass attack on Jewish shops, synagogues and properties in 1938, resulting in the deaths of many Jews.