Later in the century, the Spanish went on to establish settlements in Florida. Not all the attempts were fruitful, though. Pensacola, for example, was settled in 1559 but lay deserted just a couple of years later. St. Augustine, on the other hand, proved far more successful. Founded in 1565, today it is the oldest surviving European settlement on the U.S. mainland.
The Spanish weren’t alone in their desire to colonize Florida, however. The French also had their eyes on this new territory, in particular the Huguenots. These people were persecuted because of their Protestant religion in France and saw an opportunity to create safe havens in the New World, including Florida.
One such Huguenot settlement was established by René Goulaine de Laudonnière in 1564 in modern-day Jackson, Florida. It was named Fort Caroline, and its creation came just a year before the Spanish founded Fort Augustine.