Then relations between the two countries had taken a decided turn for the worse in 1960 after U.S. President Eisenhower had authorized a bid by Cuban dissidents to forcibly remove Castro. This became known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, an operation mounted in April 1961.
Some 1,400 troops, supported by C.I.A. B-26 bombing raids, landed at a beach in the Bay of Pigs. However, the Cuban Army was equal to the task of repelling the invasion. As a result, this ill-advised adventure ended in ignominious defeat after just three days of operations.
The main results of this misbegotten campaign to end Castro’s Communist regime were threefold. It strengthened Castro’s position as unchallenged Cuban supremo; it reinforced Cuba’s relations with the Soviet Union; and it heightened enmity between the United States and Cuba. And there was worse to come in the shape of the Cuban Missile Crisis.