Henry, never a man who liked to be thwarted in his designs, then launched a military campaign against Scotland. In a period known as the “Rough Wooing,” Henry inflicted a significant defeat on the Scottish forces at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh outside Edinburgh. An estimated 6,000 Scots were slaughtered, and the day came to be called “Black Saturday” in the country.
The Scots were concerned for Mary’s well-being and turned to their ally, France, for help. A treaty was signed stipulating that Mary would marry Francis, the son and heir of the French monarch, Henry II. French forces duly landed in Scotland and Mary was spirited off to France in August 1548. And she was to live there at the French court for the next 13 years.