Even when you think you know everything there is to know about history, there’s always another side to the story. After all, the past is largely only available to us through the recorded accounts of those alive at the time, and those documents may not always be as truthful as we might at first assume. It’s no wonder, then, that so many mind-blowing alternative historical theories have arisen. Prepare to have your world rocked.
20. The Titanic didn’t really sink
In fact, so the theory goes, it was actually the Titanic’s sister ship, Olympic, which sank in 1912. According to Robin Gardiner, the Olympic had been damaged in 1911, so in order to recoup some insurance money on it, the ship’s owners swapped it with the Titanic and planned for it to sink – but slowly enough that lifeboats could rescue everyone aboard. Instead, 1,500 people died when the ship struck an iceberg.
19. Or if it did, it was on purpose
Another theory surrounding the sinking of the Titanic – and there are many – posits that financier J.P. Morgan had the ship sunk intentionally, in order to purge those opposed to the Federal Reserve Bank’s creation. Indeed, at least three notable men hostile to the idea died on the Titanic, and Morgan himself canceled his booking at the last minute.
18. Elizabeth I was actually a boy in drag
According to an American writer, Steve Berry, the real Elizabeth Tudor died when she was around ten years old, after falling sick while escaping an outbreak of the plague. Her minders, fearing execution, dressed a boy from a local village in her clothes – and fooled even her father, King Henry VIII, in a charade that lasted all “her” life. Supposedly, the “Virgin Queen” never married because she was actually a man.
17. The Great Sphinx wasn’t built by the Ancient Egyptians
Instead, it was just restored by them, according to a tablet discovered in Giza. The “Inventory Stela” notes that Khufu, the pharaoh on whom the sphinx is thought to be based, “restored the statue, all covered in painting.” Indeed, Gaston Maspero, a French Egyptologist, suggested that by the time of the pharaohs, “the Sphinx was already buried in sand” – and therefore built by an even older civilization.
16. Roosevelt provoked Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor
During the Second World War, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was looking for an excuse to declare war on the Axis forces – at least, according to political economist Robert Higgs. Indeed, he writes that Roosevelt attempted to first bait Hitler into attacking the U.S. When that failed, he instead brought economic sanctions down on Japan – fully aware their retaliation would include attacking Pearl Harbor.
15. Otto III fabricated a 300-year gap in history
So goes the “phantom time hypothesis,” devised in 1991 by Heribert Illig. According to Illig, Roman Emperor Otto III conspired with Pope Sylvester II, potentially with the help of Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, to fast forward the AD calendar by 297 years, from 614 to 911. Why? Partly to legitimize Otto’s position, but also just because they fancied being around in the year 1,000.
14. Michael Jackson faked his death and fled to Bahrain
When a much-loved celebrity passes away, you often find people clinging to whatever evidence they can find to prove that he or she is not really dead. Such is the case with Michael Jackson, who many believe is still alive to this day, despite apparently dying in 2009. Adherents cite factors like a suspicious mortuary photo of Jackson and a supposed plan to escape the furore surrounding his 2005 sex trial by fleeing to Bahrain.
13. The 2004 tsunami was caused by U.S. nuclear testing
The tsunami that shattered South-East Asia in 2004 was as serious as it gets for natural disasters. Indeed, it’s considered to be the tenth worst of all time, and was also the fourth largest earthquake of the past century. And some people believe it was actually orchestrated by U.S. scientists testing nukes underground – a theory alas unsupported by any real evidence.
12. Paul McCartney died in 1966 and was replaced by a lookalike
Back in 1969, a series of articles published by American college students alleged that the Beatles member had actually died three years prior, and the man pretending to be him was actually a lookalike. Supposedly, much of the band’s art and lyrics contains “clues” to the truth, like the Abbey Road album cover, which is said to denote a funeral procession.
11. Shakespeare’s plays were actually written by several different authors
With a paucity of available information on Shakespeare, it’s no wonder some reckon his plays weren’t actually written by him at all. Indeed, from Earl of Oxford Edward de Vere to essayist and philosopher Sir Francis Bacon, there are plenty of theorized candidates for the true author – or authors – of the Bard’s works.
10. AIDS was created by the CIA
This Cold War-era conspiracy theory originated at a time when the Soviet Union and the U.S. were known to bandy around crazy biological warfare accusations. However, there are still those who believe it to this day. Indeed, the notion that the CIA was behind the AIDS crisis took hold thanks to the USSR’s use of East German doctors to give it credibility.
9. The Twin Towers were felled by a controlled demolition
The tragedy of 9/11 was a breeding ground for conspiracies, many of which are still propagated. One of the most common suggests that the towers weren’t actually brought down by the planes that crashed into them, but by controlled explosions inside the two buildings. Devotees point to the structures’ almost instant collapse and the sounds of explosions reported by witnesses.
8. William Shakespeare was an English spy
Some theorists claim that, not only was Shakespeare apparently not responsible for his plays, he was actually an English spy by the name of Francis Garland. The diaries of mathematician John Dee make extended references to Garland’s services as a spy, but there’s no evidence he ever existed – leading some to believe he was a pseudonym for Shakespeare.
7. Princess Diana was murdered by MI6
Following the death of Princess Diana in 1997, Mohamed Al-Fayed – father of Dodi, Diana’s boyfriend, who also died in the same car crash that killed her – made scores of conspiracy claims that she had been murdered. One such claim involved the use of another car, a white Fiat Uno, which he claimed forced Diana’s car to crash.
6. Multiple gunmen were responsible for JFK’s assassination
Despite the Warren Commission concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in assassinating John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, there are still those who suggest the 35th U.S. president was killed by more than one person. Indeed, the number of bullets fired has led many to suggest a second gunmen was present on a nearby grassy knoll.
5. NASA faked the moon landings
The 1969 moon landings have long been held in scorn by conspiracy theorists, who claim that NASA faked them in order to win the Space Race. “Evidence” like Buzz Aldrin’s American flag waving in wind that wouldn’t exist in a vacuum is popular among such theorists, who assert that NASA filmed the moon landings on a secret set, possibly with the help of film director Stanley Kubrick.
4. Aleister Crowley was a secret agent for the British Empire
The man who proclaimed himself the “Great Beast 666” may have been more than just the “wickedest man in the world,” as the media branded him. In fact, some claim that the occultist, painter and poet was actually a British spy. Crowley himself even referred to his work for British intelligence agencies in his writing.
3. The sinking of the Lusitania in 1915 was a British plot
Just three years after the Titanic sunk, her rival ship RMS Lusitania endured the same appalling end. Instead of an iceberg, however, it was a German U-boat that had determined Lusitania’s fate – or so the story goes. Indeed, many theorists suggest that she was actually sunk by the British to bring the U.S. into the war. The theorists point to the speed she went down – just 18 minutes – and explosions heard aboard by survivors.
2. Jack the Ripper never actually existed
According to some, Victorian serial killer Jack the Ripper was actually entirely imagined by the press at the time. They claim that the murders attributed to him were just another five random killings, no different from so many others. Back then, this area of east London was known for its squalor and high crime rate.
1. Van Gogh didn’t kill himself
It’s well known that artist Vincent van Gogh committed suicide at the age of 37. However, a pair of biographers have recently disputed this. Indeed, in 2011 they alleged that Van Gogh was killed accidentally by two boys playing with a malfunctioning gun – but decided to take the blame himself in order to protect them.